1. A.O. Champagne
DETAIL OF PANORAMIC VIEW OF PARIS
Buildings surround and protect us, providing shelter from the climate and environment. Within their protective walls, we work, study, play, sleep, worship, and shop. We spend more than 90 percent of our lives inside them.
2. Unidentified Photographer
FAMILY PARTY AT THE RESIDENCE OF DAVID M. OSBORNE, SOUTH STREET, AUBURN, N.Y.
Buildings are such a pervasive part of our environment that often we do not think about how its design is related to the building's function, environment, or the people who use it. Our homes tell a lot about our identity, our values, and the things we use to keep us comfortable.
3. Unidentified Photographer
CHILDREN WITH BIRDHOUSES, SCHOOL #40, DEWEY AVE., ROCHESTER, NY
Architecture is the art and science of building. Although we are not architects, we can see basic geometric shapes that architects use in designing buildings. We can understand basic architectural construction techniques based upon scientific principles that have evolved over the centuries.
4. Boorne and May
HEAD ABOVE WATER, SARCEE INDIAN AND SQUAWS
Not all buildings are intended to be permanent. When a culture is nomadic, sometimes the structures they create need to be easily taken down and moved.
5. Désiré Charnay
CHICKEN-ITZA: MAIN FAçADE OF THE NUN’S PALACE
We will see buildings from the United States, as well as from many countries around the world. Different cultures and different time periods have produced a wide variety of architectural styles. Many of the photographs were taken more than a hundred years ago, soon after the invention of photography in 1839.
6. Unknown Photographer
BASIC GEOMETRIC SHAPES
Architecture is the science of building. Architects understand the natural laws of gravity and their affects upon mass. There are four basic geometric shapes used by architects in designing buildings. They are the circle, square, triangle, and rectangle. A building may use one or a combination of the shapes in its design. When we study a building's design, we see the shapes as three-dimensional. As you look at each image in the kit see if you can spot them.
7. Unknown Photographer
How do we transform a basic geometric shape into something we can build with? We have to make it three-dimensional. A circle and triangle together become a cone, a square becomes a cube, a triangle becomes a pyramid, a circle becomes a sphere and a rectangle and a circle become a cylinder.
8. Maxime Du Camp
SYRIA. BAALBECK (HELIOPOLIS) COLONNADE OF THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN
There are six basic architectural techniques used to build. One of the oldest building techniques is the post and lintel, used since prehistoric times. Vertical posts hold up the weight of the lintel, the horizontal piece.
9. Unidentified Photographer
VIEW OF FARM HOUSE WITH PEOPLE IN FRONT
The wall is another very early architectural construction technique. A load-bearing wall supports the weight of the roof so that gravity does not pull it down. A non-load bearing wall divides the inside space, such as a wall between a bedroom and a bathroom.
10. Francis Frith
ROMAN ARCH ON THE ISLAND OF BIGGEH, NUBIA
The Romans developed the arch over 2000 years ago. The arch is a curved structure spanning an open space. The arch's curve transfers the weight down and out onto the supporting columns, piers or buttresses. Arches come in different shapes— from almost flat to very pointed.
11. Dr. Thomas Keith
The keystone is the wedge-shaped stone at the top of the arch that locks the other stones into place. How did builders keep the arch from falling until the keystone was put into place? A temporary support, usually of wood, was underneath and held the stones in place until the keystone was inserted. Then this temporary support was removed. The arch would not fall as long as its columns were steady and did not spread.
12. Unidentified Photographer
ROME. SCALA REGIA DEL PALAZZO VATICANO
The vault is an architectural technique based on the arch's technology. The vault is an arched ceiling that covers an open, interior area and creates a tunnel.
13. Unidentified Photographer
COLOGNE, INTERIOR OF THE NAVE
As seen in this photograph, a vault consists of two rows of columns, or two walls lined up, connected with arches and covered by a roof. The Romans developed the vault approximately 2000 years ago.
14. Frederick H. Evans
KELMSCOTT MANOR: ATTICS
The truss is a combination of beams, bars, or tiers arranged in a triangle. It goes under and supports the weight of a roof.
15. Beseler Lantern Slide Company
S. MARIA DEL FIORE, FLORENCE
The dome is based on the arch's technology and was also developed by the Romans about 1900 years ago. A dome is a curved roof over an open, interior space. The first domes were built by laying each layer of bricks so that it projected slightly beyond the layer below until the last layer met at the top. To make the dome smooth inside, workmen chipped away the overlapping edges.
16. Francis Frith
THE MOSQUE OF THE EMEER AKHOR
Architecture is also the art of building. It is the art of combining shapes, construction techniques, and building materials to create a building that is pleasing to look at, works the way it needs to, and fits with what’s around it. Here we see a mosque (a place of worship) with its beautiful dome and striking patterns. It is protected by a stone wall.
17. Frederick H. Evans
LINCOLN CATHEDRAL FROM THE CASTLE
Throughout history, different styles of architecture have been popular at different times. Style has its own way of arranging building parts and using decoration. Greek, Roman, Gothic, Baroque, Greek Revival, Gothic Revival, and Internationalism are a few of the stylistic labels. In this image we get a look at two very different times and styles. In the background we see a gothic cathedral built about 500 years before the houses in the foreground.
18. Alvin Langdon Coburn
GARGOYLES NOTRE DAME
Look at the unusual decoration on this church. How does the gargoyle look? Why do you think gargoyles were placed on churches?
19. Francis Frith
THE SPHYNX AND THE GREAT PYRAMID, GEEZEH
The Egyptian pyramids are the oldest masonry structures in existence today. This is how the Pyramid Cheops, built around 2600 BC, looked in 1857. The pyramids were built as monuments and shelters for the Pharaohs after they died. The triangle is the basic shape of the pyramid and the wall is the basic construction technique.
20. Pascal Sebah
ASCENDING THE PYRAMID CHEOPS
Pyramids were massive monuments; Cheops covered an area of 108 acres and took thousands of workmen many years to build. Photographs such as this one helps give us an idea of their enormous size and the work that went into building them.
21. T. H. McAllister
VESTIAL SECTION OF THE GREAT PYRAMID
According to legend, the pyramid's design was a symbol of Egypt's government with the Pharaoh at the top and the people under the crushing weight at the bottom. Inside the pyramid, there were chambers where the Pharaoh's personal items such as jewelry, clothes, and even food were stored. The planning behind the construction of a pyramid was very detailed including tunnels that were designed to stop thieves from entering the tombs.
22. Francis Frith
PHARAOH’S BED, ISLAND OF PHILAE
A very early example of the post and lintel technique is seen in the Hypaethral Temple built in the Upper Nile. The sacred temple was built on an island so that when the Nile flooded, the island was submerged and only the temple was visible. Although only the temple's ruins were left when this photograph was taken, we can appreciate that it was built to last thousands of years as a testimony to its people and their religion.
23. Giacomo Caneva
THE COLOSSEUM, ROME
About 2000 years ago, the famous Roman Colosseum was built. While the Egyptians and Greeks used mainly the post and lintel, the Romans developed and refined the use of the arch. In this 1850 photograph, you can see the beauty of the Colosseum: the curved wall placing one arch after the other evenly around it. The Colosseum, a big sports arena, seated 50,000 and was the forerunner of our sports stadiums today. However, their sports were a little different - bloody and brutal with gladiators and animals fighting one another.
24. Unidentified Photographer
Another famous building that uses a dome is the Hagia Sophia, a church built in 532 AD in Istanbul, Turkey. This photograph, taken in the 1860s, shows how large Hagia Sophia was compared to its surroundings.
25. Beseler Lantern Slide Company
ST. SOFIA CH-CONSTANT
The dome was the symbol of perfection and divinity. The church's design was in the shape of a Greek cross with the dome at the center. The dome was 107 feet in diameter.After the Muslims conquered Istanbul, Hagia Sophia became a mosque. Today it is a museum.
26. Alvin Langdon Coburn
PARIS, NOTRE DAME
Notre Dame in Paris is one of the most famous examples of the Gothic style, which used a vault of pointed arches. Its construction began in 1163 AD. Again symbols were important. The church's design was in the shape of a Roman cross. The size of the church was enormous, making people feel the presence of a higher power. Decorations on the front of the church included stories about apostles and saints. These were a very important part of the building because the congregation could not read.
27. R. Murray
Caernarvon Castle, with its tall towers, was an early example of the cylinder shape used in architecture. Can you think of any modern buildings that have the same shape? Castles in Europe and Asia were mainly built between the 12th and 14th centuries. One of its main architectural features was the wall.
28. Unknown Photographer
ILLUSTRATION OF A CASTLE
In this sketch, we can see how a wealthy lord, his family, soldiers, and servants lived inside. The serfs lived outside where they tilled the fields for their lord. The thick walls and watch towers provided protection against enemy attacks.
29. Samuel Bourne
BENARES “VISHNU PUD” AND OTHER TEMPLES NEAR THE BURNING GHAT
Leaving Europe, we go to Asia, and the holiest site in India for millions of Indian Hindus. Benares is on the Ganges River in northern India. Here worshipers have come for hundreds of years to bathe in the river in order to be blessed. Notice the beautiful detail of the Vishnu Pud Temple. Can you see similarities to European architectural techniques—the post and lintel, wall, arch, and dome?
30. Timothy H. O’Sullivan
OLD MISSION CHURCH, ZUNI PUEBLO, N.M. VIEW FROM THE PLAZA
From India we go to the United States to see the Old Mission Church in Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico. It was a place of worship like Hagia Sophia, Notre Dame, and Vishnu Pud, but notice how different the building is from the others. It uses the architectural technique of the wall to support its flat roof. It is in harmony with its environment using a simple rectangular design and sun baked bricks. In hot climates, thick walls act as insulation keeping interiors cool.
31. John K. Hillers
VIEW IN ZUNI. LOOKING NORTHEAST
In this image of adobe dwellings notice all the ladders that provide access to the rooftops. Flat roofs provide additional living space that is cooler on summer evenings.
32. Ladislas Chodzkiewicz
FONTAINEBLEAU: LA COUR DE CHASSE
From the American Southwest, we go to France where King Francis I added on to Fontainebleau Palace in 1528 to create a monument to himself and his court. It became a famous example of Renaissance architecture. The massive stone walls are the basic architectural technique used, and trusses were used to support the pointy pitched roofs.
33. Unidentified Photographer
Holstentor, built in 1477, is a city gate that was once part of a city wall that protected the town of Lübeck, Germany. Lübeck was an important commercial center in Northern Germany because of its port on the Baltic Sea. The Holstentor is in the late brick Gothic style, which was common among Baltic countries where there were no natural rock resources. Bricks were used instead as a construction material.
34. George Reed
PHILADELPHIA STREET SCENE, 3RD AND CHESTNUT
The office buildings seen here were built one next to the other without any space between them. This type of commercial development is commonplace around the world.
35. A.O. Champagne
PANORAMIC VIEW OF THE INTERSECTION OF THE RUE DE CASTIGLIONE AND THE RUE DE RIVOLI, PARIS
In this wide-angle panoramic view of Paris in the 1890s, notice the wide, straight avenue leading to a monument. The buildings along the boulevards housed shops at the street level, and offices and apartments on the upper levels. What basic construction techniques can you see here?
36. Friedrich von Martens
VIEW OF EAST END OF BUILDING [CRYSTAL PALACE]
The Crystal Palace, made of iron and glass, was built for the Great Exhibition in England in 1851.Until the middle of the 19th century, the primary building materials were stone, wood, concrete, and brick. With the invention of cast iron, people used the same architectural techniques to design lighter, more airy looking buildings.
37. Philip Henry Delamotte
VIEW IN CENTRAL HALL, ART TREASURES EXHIBITION, MANCHESTER
This is the interior of Central Hall in Manchester, England. The cast iron arches and columns were made in pieces ahead of time and joined together when the building was constructed. Glass was used in the roof. The architect used the vault technique to create a large, open space inside.
38. A. Collard
BOURBONNAIS RAILWAY. ROUNDHOUSE FOR 32 LOCOMOTIVES AT NEVERS, FIRST INTERIOR VIEW
People have been using cast iron, steel and glass in buildings since the mid-nineteenth century. This roundhouse in Nevers, France, is another example of an iron and glass building. The floor of the roundhouse needed be turned because early trains could not back up. The glass and iron structure allows for a large interior area with lots of daylight for working on the locomotives. It was a circular building with a large dome over the center, trusses supporting the lower roof, posts and lintels providing interior support.
39. Victor Prevost
CORNER OF A FARM
In this photograph of a French farm, we see materials such as thatch, wood, and stone. There was no architect who designed the farm buildings; instead the farmer and his family probably built them.
40. Unidentified Photographer
FAMILY IN FRONT OF LOG CABIN
This log cabin is another example of a structure that used available materials. This modest house uses the same basic architectural techniques, the wall and truss, found in the fancy Fontainebleau Palace.
41. Unidentified Photographer
RESIDENCE OF MR. C.S. FRENCH, NEWPORT, RHODE ISLAND
When it was photographed in 1890, this house had probably just been built because there were no foundation plantings or mature trees around the house. It has many interesting features including: an arched entrance, cube shape, cylinder bays, rooftop porch, enclosed balcony, and triangle-shaped roof.
42. George P. Hall and Son
BROADWAY AND HERALD SQUARE
The skyscraper is an American invention. The first one was built in Chicago in the 1880s and was only 10 stories high. The Sears Tower, also in Chicago, has 110 floors, rises 1,451 feet into the air, and symbolically scrapes the sky today. New York City has one of the highest concentrations of skyscrapers in the world. Here is an early view of what these buildings look like at this famous New York intersection.
43. Margaret Bourke-White
GARGOYLE OF CHRYSLER TOWER
We see architectural motifs such as the gargoyle still in use in the 20th century. This gargoyle on the Chrysler building differs from the one we saw on Notre Dame in that it is made of steel rather than stone and it is purely decorative.
44. Lewis Wickes Hine
OLD-TIME STEEL WORKER ON EMPIRE STATE BUILDING
New York City
Steel, glass, and reinforced concrete are the main building materials in a skyscraper. Walls do not support skyscrapers because they are too tall. Instead, iron beams form skeletal frames that support each floor. This Lewis Hine photograph shows a worker on the Empire State building, one of the most famous skyscrapers in the world. It is still one of the tallest buildings in New York. You can see another famous skyscraper, the Chrysler Building, in the background.
45. Andreas Feininger
DOWNTOWN MANHATTAN, BROOKLYN BRIDGE, EAST RIVER
Construction began on this bridge in 1870 and it took 13 years to complete. At the time it was built it was the longest suspension bridge in the world. It is built of limestone, rock, and cement and is in the Gothic style. In its history, horse buggies, trolleys, cars, trains, pedestrians, and bicycles, have used the bridge. It is one of the most recognizable features of the New York City skyline.
46. Pete Turner
The shapes of a city are not just found in its buildings. In this New York City street scene, we can see a combination of shapes in everyday things. What shapes can you see?
47. Pete Turner
Here the photographer combines a natural shape with the shape of a man-made structure. What creates the natural shape? What do you think the man-made structure is? Think of all the natural shapes that can be found where you live.
48. Pete Turner
This photograph shows us that the shape of an object or building can change a lot depending on how close to or far away you are from it. Here we see a fence along the side of the road. How would the shape of the fence look different if the photographer had taken the picture from across the road.
49. Pete Turner
ORANGE WALL AND WAVE
Color is also an important element of design. When we look around at shelters, especially homes, we see that people make choices about the colors they use. Color can also be a reflection of a shelter’s surroundings and environment.
50. Pete Turner
HOTEL DOORWAYS AND STAIRS
What architectural techniques were used to create this building? What words would you use to describe the colors that were used on the walls and doorways?
51. Pete Turner
In addition to architects that design buildings, there are landscape architects that design natural spaces such as gardens and parks. What basic geometric shapes do you see that have been used to design this garden?
52. Pete Turner
SHAPES OF THINGS TO COME
The pictures from this kit show us that over thousands of years building materials and technology have greatly changed, but the basic geometric shapes and construction techniques have remained. Here the photographer uses these basic shapes and his imagination to picture a city of the future.