HIGH LEVEL DOCUMENT BASED QUESTION This DBQ adheres to New York State Learning Standard 1- History of the United States and New York, Commencement Level, Key Ideas #1 & 2. Additionally, this lesson plan corresponds with the National Social Studies Curriculum Standards thematic strands of power, authority, and governance & production, distribution, and consumption.
This Document Based Question (DBQ) may be used in the classroom in various ways. Instructors should focus on the images that reflect the economic circumstance of the American citizens and American immigrants during the turn of the century and early 1900s.
First, students may build their own DBQ scaffolding questions in pairs, as a group, or on their own in class using Lewis Hine images as resources. Second, the teacher may decide to select specific images to include as scaffolding questions. Finally, images can be selected either by the teacher or the students and included with the following primary sources to form a comprehensive DBQ assignment. However, at least four photographic images must be used as scaffolding documents.
This Document Based Question (DBQ) consists of two parts. Part A includes scaffolding questions for each primary source. Answer each scaffolding question in the space provided. Part B is the DBQ. Write an essay that fully answers the DBQ.
Progressive reformers, sometimes referred to as muckrakers, used the press and photography to help end the poverty, crowding, and disease of American cities in the early 20th century. Additionally, Progressive urban reformers built settlement houses to offer education, child care, social opportunities, and help find fair employment for the working class, regardless of race or ethnicity.
DOCUMENT BASED QUESTION
What reforms and actions did Progressives pursue at the turn of the century?
TASK Answer each scaffolding question in the space provided based on the corresponding primary source. Answer the DBQ using information from at least five of the primary sources in Part A and your knowledge of United States history.
“There is no reasonable ground for interfering with the liberty of a person or the right of free contract by determining the hours of labor…Clean and wholesome bread does not depend upon whether the baker works but ten hours per day or only sixty hours per week...“
Lochner v. New York, 1905
“...agitation of questions of social equality is of the extremist folly, and progress in the enjoyment of all privileges that will come to us must be the result of severe and constant struggle rather than artificial forcing.”
-Booker T. Washington, "The Atlanta Compromise", 1895
-"Ohio State University of History", Published 1899
“A visitor of the relief society found Rosina aged thirteen years, helping her mother and father in the work of finishing trousers. Since the arrival of the family in the United States seven years before, neither Rosina nor Vincenza had attended school, and neither could read or write. With the father ill of tuberculosis, Vincenza no longer able to work, and four younger children, aged eleven, seven, five and two years, to be cared for. Rosina, who had helped to support the family since she was six years old, was now the chief wage earner…All that the law could do for Rosina was to add school work to the ceaseless toil in which she had spent her days since early childhood. In her work at home from the time she was six years old for a manufacturer of clothing no provision of the labor law was violated. After her eighth birthday, her work at home, in that it prevented her attending school, caused a violation of the compulsory education law.”
Mary Van Kleeck, "Account of Child Labor in New York City Tenements", Charities and the Commons, 1908