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This kit is designed as a visual teaching aid to help students:
- Use their eyes and minds to think about buildings they see
- Understand how buildings are designed using basic geometric shapes and construction techniques
- Understand how buildings relate to their surroundings and the people who use them.
The Pyramid Cheops in Egypt is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still in existence.
Without the keystone, the whole arch would fall down. The keystone is the final block which locks all the stones together to act as one piece.
Measurements in the ancient world were based on the relationship between the different parts
of the human body. The basic unit was the cubit – the distance between the elbow
and fingertips. The average height of a man was four cubits. The width of one finger equals a digit.
Four digits equal a palm (measured across below the fingers).
Six palms equals a cubit.
In addition to people, other animals such as ants, beavers, squirrels, rabbits, and birds build homes.
The dome is a symbol of perfection and divinity.
Many church and cathedral floor plans are crosses to symbolize Christianity.
The Romans invented concrete. It was a mixture made of lime, sand, volcanic ash, and water.
A gargoyle, often a scary, carved figure, is a water spout from a building's roof gutter. Gargoyles are often found on Gothic churches and are sometimes used as decoration in modern architecture.
In Rome, the public baths had at least three different processes you went through to bathe.
After you undressed, you went to the tepidarium, a room heated with warm air to make you sweat.
Second you went to the caldarium, where you took a hot bath in a tub or basin. Finally you went to the
frigidarium where you took a cold bath.
There were separate baths for women and men.
A sphinx protects the entrance of a temple or pyramid. In Egypt, the sphinx was a statue with a man's head and a lion's body. The Greek sphinx had a female head and the body of a lion or dog with wings.
The Great Wall of China is over 1500 miles long and is the world’s longest man-made structure. It was built more than 2300 years as a fortification against invaders.
A memorial arch, like the Arc de Triomphe (Arch of Triumph) in Paris, was built to commemorate the return of a victorious army. The troops would march through the arch during its triumphal parade. A memorial arch was first built by the Romans.
The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
- The Great Pyramid of Giza
- The Mausoleum of Maussollos at Halicarnassus
- The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus
- The Hanging Gardens of Babylon
- The Colossus of Rhodes
- The Statue of Zeus by Phidias in the great temple at Olympia
- The Lighthouse of Alexandria.
Books for Elementary through Junior High School Students
- Adler, Irving and Ruth. Houses. New York: The John Day Co., 1964.
- Alain. The Magic Stones: The Story of the Arch. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1957.
- Ames, Lee J. Draw 50 Buildings and Other Structures. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Co., Inc.
- Barstow, Charles Lester. Famous Buildings: A Primer of Architecture. New York: The Century Co., 1915.
- Burns, William A. A World of Homes. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., 1953.
- Case, Bernard. The Story of Houses. New York: Sterling Publishing Co., 1957.
- Ceserani, Gian Paolo and Piero Ventura. Grand Constructions. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1983.
- Cummings, Richard. Make Your Own Model Forts and Castles. New York: David McKay Co., 1977.
- D'Alelio, Jane. I Know That Building: Discovering Architecture with Activities and Games. Washington, DC: The Preservation Press, 1989.
- Lots of activities related to architecture such as making paper buildings and designing games.
- Fagg, Christopher and Adrian Sington. How They Built Long Ago. New York: Warwick Press, 1981.
- From the Mammoth hunters to the Renaissance, the hows and whys of building are discussed and lavishly illustrated.
- Fisher, Timothy. Huts, Hovels, and Houses. Drawings by Kathleen Kolb. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. 1977.
- "Directions for making structures of snow, cans, newspapers, and other materials often considered trash. Also includes instructions for a windmill, greenhouse, and solar heating projects."
- Hiller, Carl E. From Tepee to Towers: A Photographic History of American Architecture. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1967.
- Jacobs, David. Master Builder of the Middle Ages. New York: American Heritage Publishing Co., Inc., 1969.
- Lamprey, Louise. All the Ways of Building. New York: The Macmillian Co., 1933.
- Leacroft, Helen. The Buildings of Ancient Egypt. New York: W. R. Scott, 1963.
- Leacroft, Helen and Richard. The Buildings of Ancient Greece. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1966.
- ---. The Buildings of Byzantium. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1977.
- ---. The Buildings of Early Islam. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1977.
- Macauley, David. Castles. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1977.
- ---. Cathedral: The Story of Its Construction. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1977.
- Maddox, Diane. Architects Make Zigzags: Looking at Architecture from A to Z. illustrated by Roxie Munro. Washington, DC: The Preservation Press, 1986.
- Many terms such as gable, keystone, and newel post are illustrated and explained. A great resource for quick understanding of architectural terms.
- Paine, Roberta. Looking at Architecture. New York: Lothrop, Lee and Shepard, 1974.
- Peck, Barbara L. The First Book of Palaces. New York: Franklin Watts, Inc., 1964.
- Prince, Charles Matlock. The ABC's of Architecture. New York: E. P. Dutton and Co., 1927.
- Provus, Malcohm M. We Get Our Shelter. Chicago: Benefic Press, 1962.
- Robinson, Ethel Fay and Thomas P. Houses in America. New York: The Viking Press, 1936.
- Vale, Edmund. Abbeys. London: B. T. Batsford, Ltd., 1956.
- ---. Churches. London: B. T. Batsford, Ltd., 1956.
- Weil, Wesi. The Houses we Build. New York: Athenum, 1985.
- Wilson, Forrest, What It Feels Like to Be A Building. Washington, DC: Landmark Reprint Services, 1988.
- A fun and graphic approach to architecture in human terms.
Books for Secondary Students
- Abramovitz, Anita. People and Spaces: A View of History through Architecture. illustrated by Susannah Kelly. New York: The Viking Press, 1979.
- An overview of western history showing the cultural relationships expressed by our buildings.
- Fletcher, Sir Banister. A History of Architecture. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975.
- Gardiner, Stephen. Inside Architecture. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1983.
- An overview of architectural development from the Egyptians to the 20th century modern movement with each chapter focusing on an architectural style, its place, materials, and structures.
- Gauldie. Sinclair. Architecture: The Appreciation of the Arts 1. New York: Oxford University Press, 1969.
- The aim of the book is to develop the reader's own "innate ability to read the language of form and to understand a building as the culmination of a process in which functional, structural, and
aesthetic intentions combine to produce a communication which may be eloquent, shocking, or dull."
- Giblin, James Cross. The Skyscraper Book. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1981.
- "Discusses skyscrapers, from the first one constructed in Chicago in 1884 to those of today, and points out the problems skyscrapers have helped solve and create."
- Hamlin, Talbot. Architecture Through the Ages. New York: G. P. Putman's Sons, 1953.
- Harris, Cyril M., ed. Historic Architecture Source Book. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1977.
- A dictionary of architectural terms and information with abundant illustrations.
- Jacobs, David. Architecture. New York: Newsweek Books, 1974.
- "Jacobs shows us how to look at a civilization's monuments and discover for ourselves a good deal about the people who produced these monuments."
- Kostof, Spiro. A History of Architecture: Settings and Rituals. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
- "The author's premise is that buildings are conditioned by social, economic, and political frame of their time. 'Architecture, in the end,' he writes, 'is nothing more and nothing less than the gift of making places for some human purpose.'"
- Mansbridge, John. Graphic History of Architecture. New York: The Viking Press, 1967.
- Norwich, John Julius, ed. Great Architecture of the World. New York: Random House, 1975.
- Includes the gazetter in which more than 1000 buildings are identified, geographically located and briefly described.
- Raeburn, Michael, ed. Architecture of the Western World. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., 1980.
- Traces "the evolution of architecture in the contexts of social history, urban planning, constructional types and developments, stylistic and aesthetic movements, and the innovations of individual architects."
- Weiss, Harvey. Model Buildings and How to Make Them. New York: Thomas V. Crowell, 1979.
- Ideas and suggestions for making model buildings such as castles from cardboard and dollhouses from wood.
- Winters, Nathan B. Architecture is Elemental: Visual Thinking Through Architectural Concepts. Salt Lake City: Gibbs M. Smith, Inc., 1986.
- An excellent discussion of architectural principals and designs through a series of lessons and illustrations - a wonderful resource for classroom activities.
- Wolfe, Tom. From Bauhaus to Our House. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981.
- An essay on 20th century architecture in which Wolfe puts our glass and steel boxes into a frame of reference.